Pfizer Didn’t Need an Inversion to Avoid
Paying U.S. Taxes
Pfizer’s declaration that it
intends to merge with Allergan and cut taxes by moving its tax home to
Dublin from New York City has set off something of a furor.
which may not technically be a tax inversion, functions similarly. President
Obama has called inversions unpatriotic, the Treasury has tried to block
them, and an array of political and government figures have criticized them.
inversions pose a quandary, but by focusing on them too narrowly we might
easily overlook an important truth: Companies haven’t needed tax inversions
to avoid American taxes. They’ve already got mountains of earnings stored
overseas, well over $2 trillion and, quite likely, much, much more.
because global tax rules give American multinationals enormous incentives to
park their earnings outside the United States even without inversions. What
the executives of America’s largest companies are doing is entirely rational
and often in the interest of their shareholders. But it means that those of
us who pay income taxes in the United States are being forced to pick up the
Pfizer intends to merge
with Allergan, the maker of Botox, and move its headquarters to
Ireland. Michael Falco for The
New York Times
movement of American corporate earnings overseas is difficult to measure
precisely, it is clearly significant and it has been growing rapidly.
report by Audit Analytics, an accounting research firm, found that at the
end of 2014, the companies in the Russell 1000 index held more than $2.3
trillion in earnings abroad. The report, which had limited scope and is
already slightly out of date, restricted itself to earnings that those 1,000
big companies had declared to be “permanently” or “indefinitely” invested
abroad. Under United States rules, when companies give earnings this
designation, they are not required to actually pay American taxes on that
money unless they return the cash to the United States. Audit Analytics
found that the 2014 total was twice the 2008 amount. The jump from 2013 to
2014 alone was 8.6 percent.
several reasons to believe that the report, which is based on data drawn
from corporate financial statements filed with the Securities and Exchange
Commission, substantially understates the current total of corporate
earnings being held abroad.
are indications that the overseas hoard has been increasing since last year.
Data from Audit Analytics substantiates that assumption. At my request, the
company extracted updated S.E.C. filings from the 87 members of the Russell
1000 index with fiscal years that ended after Dec. 31. All told, just those
87 companies held nearly $518 billion in earnings that they designated as
permanently invested abroad and not subject to American taxes — an increase
of 12 percent since the previous year. That alone pushes the foreign
earnings hoard to close to $2.4 trillion. If that rate of increase were to
hold for all of the companies in the Russell index, they would hold nearly
$2.6 trillion in the “permanently reinvested” basket by the end of 2015.
significant, the report did not even begin to address a second basket of
earnings that go untaxed in the United States — money that the companies say
is being held abroad only temporarily. This pile of money is, in some cases,
very large, yet it is difficult to unearth in the corporate data.
I did some digging into Pfizer’s
accounts and found that while the company designated $74 billion as
“indefinitely” invested abroad, it also laid out a financial trail
suggesting that it was holding an additional $70 billion or so on a
temporary basis. Pfizer confirmed my calculations. How many other companies
are doing this isn’t immediately discernible. But many financial statements
the financial statements of 15 companies with large foreign hoards,
including Apple, Microsoft, Pfizer, General Electric, IBM, Oracle, Cisco
Systems and Procter & Gamble. Collectively, their “indefinitely invested”
foreign holdings in the 2014 filings amounted to $893 billion; including the
most up-to-date figures raised the total to $924 billion. Adding temporary
foreign holdings and an increase for 2015, I estimated that the 15 are
easily holding more than $1.1 trillion out of the reach of the American tax
example, designated only $69.7 billion in “foreign indefinitely reinvested”
earnings in the 2014 Audit Analytics Report. But Apple’s fiscal year ended
on Sept. 26, 2015, and on Oct. 28, it disclosed that it had $91.5 billion in
“indefinitely reinvested” earnings abroad — 31 percent more than in 2014.
Apple acknowledged that it kept a considerable sum abroad “temporarily,”
without disclosing the amount. It also said that it held a total of $186.9
billion abroad, and disclosed that it had reduced its effective tax rate in
the United States from the 35 percent statutory rate to 26.4 percent,
largely because it has paid much lower taxes on earnings abroad.
said in its filings that it had $108.3 billion in “permanently reinvested”
earnings abroad when its fiscal year ended on June 30, compared with the
$92.9 billion picked up in the 2014 Audit Analytics report. Microsoft
acknowledged that it would be responsible for $34.5 billion in United States
taxes were it to repatriate that “permanently reinvested” sum. Microsoft has
found a way to bring money back into the United States for years, even as it
cuts taxes by designating some of its money as earnings held “permanently”
It has been borrowing money overseas at
very low interest rates and using some of it to buy back shares and pay
dividends in the United States, methods that tend to increase its share
filings, IBM, which said it was holding $61.4 billion in earnings overseas
indefinitely on Dec. 31, acknowledged that by keeping earnings out of the
United States it had reduced its effective income tax rate to 21 percent —
14 percentage points below the statutory rate last year. Its financial
statement suggested how important this was to the company. It reported its
net income as $12 billion — but disclosed in a footnote that for every 1
percent increase in income tax rate, its income would fall by $200 million.
reducing income taxes by shifting money overseas has become very important
for American companies.
is making tax inversions more difficult — though Pfizer may have found a way
around the rules. Measures pending in Congress would limit or ban tax
inversions, but Congress has up to now not had the political will to grapple
with this issue. It seems unlikely to somehow find the will during a
presidential election season.
But even if
the Pfizer merger, or tax inversions generally, are ruled out of bounds, the
United States still faces a gigantic problem. American companies are
hoarding money overseas and avoiding United States taxes without inversions.
Unless the laws change, it is difficult to imagine them bringing all that
A version of this article appears in print on November 29, 2015, on
page BU3 of the New York edition with the headline: The Benefits of Keeping
Earnings in Exile.
The New York Times Company